2023 State of Accreditation Report

We are pleased to share insights we have gained from AACSB accreditation visits over the past academic year, providing AACSB members with a collective learning experience.

The continuous improvement experience that is a guiding principle for AACSB should be extended to everyone. This report curates the collective wisdom of our peer review visits, including outcomes, best practices, and future opportunities. 



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accreditation outcomes
An overview of the accreditation landscape.

2022–23 Accreditation Outcomes

Business Accreditation

Business Accreditation as of August 1, 2023

2022–23 Outcomes: AAC, IAC, CIRC Committee Meetings, July 1, 2022, Through June 30, 2023

Data displayed are as of June 30, 2023. The outcomes map displays all initial accreditations and extensions of accreditation.
Total number of Extensions: 185 (includes business and accounting).
Total number of schools achieving business accreditation: 40.
Total number of schools achieving accounting accreditation: 2.

Initial Business Accreditation

Number of Schools in Process as of June 30, 2023

Number of schools in process by region

Initial Accreditation Visit Outcomes Between July 1, 2022, and June 30, 2023, Outcomes by Region

IAC Outcomes by Region


Continuous Improvement Review

Continuous Improvement Review Visits Between July 1, 2022, and June 30, 2023, Outcomes by Region

CIR Outcomes by Region 2022-23


Quality Improvement Icon
What lessons were learned through the peer review process?

2022–23 Accreditation Insights

2020 Standards Mentioned

Schools With Visits Between July 1, 2022, and June 30, 2023, With Accredit and Extend Recommendations

Among both initial accreditation and continuous improvement review visits in 2022–23, the most frequently mentioned standards for schools to address by the next visit are standards 1, 3, 5, and 9.

Source: Peer review team reports.

Standard 1: Strategic Planning—Common Issues

  • Alignment of Mission With Practice: Schools face the challenge of aligning their stated missions with their actual practices and outcomes, and they are encouraged to reassess their missions in relation to their capabilities, distinctive assets, and core values.  
  • Strategic Planning: Schools are expected to demonstrate clear, comprehensive, and measurable strategic planning, with regular dissemination, monitoring, and assessment of the progress toward strategic objectives.  
  • Societal Impact: Schools are encouraged to clarify their societal impact focus and ensure alignment of this focus with the strategic plans of both the school and the university. 

Standard 3: Faculty and Professional Staff Resources—Common Issues

  • Improvement in Faculty Qualification Management: Institutions are advised to improve their management of faculty qualifications and refine the faculty qualification process. Many schools are advised to review and revise their faculty qualification criteria to ensure they align with the AACSB standards as well as the school’s mission and strategies. 
  • Faculty Qualifications Ratio: Approximately one-third of schools visited last year did not meet the faculty qualifications ratio (Scholarly Academic + Practice Academic + Scholarly Practitioner + Instructional Practitioner) of 90 percent in one or more disciplines, indicating a need to improve faculty qualifications to meet AACSB standards.
  • Faculty Deployment: Schools should monitor faculty qualifications and their deployment, particularly in light of high teaching loads, to ensure that faculty maintain their qualification status. Developing a strategy for administrative positions, including succession plans, is also essential to ensuring smooth transitions.  

Faculty Insights

Faculty Qualification Ratios for Schools With Visits in 2022–23

Faculty qualification ratios
Source: Table 3-1 data. 

Faculty Sufficiency and Qualifications by Most Common Discipline

Participation Ratios by Discipline

Participating ratios by reported disciplines of schools visited


SA Ratios by Discipline



View more to display by region, school size, and control.

Source: Table 3-1 data.

Commonly Reported Disciplines

  • Accounting
  • Business Law/Legal Environment
  • Computer/Management Information Systems
  • Economics
  • Finance
  • Management
  • Marketing
  • Quantitative Methods

The Profile That Emerges

Considering the insights above related to Standard 3, a profile of the AACSB schools visited in 2022–23 emerges: AACSB-accredited business schools visited in 2022–23 comprise faculty in traditional business disciplines, with a leaning toward quantitative disciplines. AACSB-accredited schools are composed of faculty who are overwhelmingly dedicated to the mission of the business school and engaged in all aspects of the business school that enable it to carry out its mission.

Standard 5: Assurance of Learning—Common Issues 

  • Assurance of Learning (AoL) Process: Peer review teams note that AoL processes should be more refined and regularly monitored. Schools should better leverage data from a variety of sources. Institutions are also urged to involve faculty in the AoL process and align their processes with curricular changes.
  • Implementation of New Programs: Institutions should conduct a critical analysis of AoL processes and learner success when introducing new programs. Review should include the budgetary implications, faculty sufficiency ratios, and enrollments of the new programs. Schools should similarly carry out an analysis of the curricular changes and the AoL processes related to the updated curriculum. 
  • Use of Direct and Indirect Measures: Institutions should use both direct and indirect measures in the AoL process. The 2020 standards require some indirect measures to be included in the overall AoL portfolio; thus, schools are encouraged to expand and more strategically leverage indirect measures to inform their curricular and programmatic changes. 

Standard 9: Societal Impact—Common Issues 

  • Developing a Mission-Driven Strategy for Societal Impact: Peer review teams note the lack of a comprehensive strategy for societal impact that aligns with a school’s selected focus area(s) and mission.
  • Measuring Societal Impact: Schools should ensure that their societal impact efforts are directly aligned with their mission, vision, and strategic plans. The integration should be reflected in curriculum, internships, and other student activities.
  • Developing Societal Impact Plans: The AACSB Initial Accreditation and Continuous Improvement Review Committees highlight the need for schools to focus on maturing their plans for societal impact, and it is therefore mentioned in virtually all decision letters sent to schools. 


Looking across all visits under the 2020 standards, the recurring themes point to a need for schools to focus strategically and align faculty resources with the school’s mission. Schools should also analyze unsystematic risk so they are positioned for challenges that have a medium-to-high likelihood of occurring. The school’s mission should drive societal impact and thought leadership. Ensuring high-quality learning outcomes through assurance of learning continues to be an area of difficulty.

Supplemental Accounting Accreditation

Initial Accreditation and Continuous Improvement Review Accounting Visit Outcomes Between July 1, 2022, and June 30, 2023 

Accounting Visits 2022-23
Source: Peer review team reports.

Accounting Standards Most Frequently Mentioned for Visits Between July 1, 2022, and June 30, 2023

Percent of schools mentioning accounting standards


Standard A1: Accounting Academic Unit Mission, Impact, and Innovation  

  • Strategic Planning: Accounting units are advised to pursue a more comprehensive strategic-planning process that involves key stakeholders including faculty, staff, students, and external affiliates. The units should also develop appropriate governance structures, such as a strategic planning committee consisting of various constituents, including accounting-specific stakeholders, for periodic review and plan updating.
  • Technology Integration: Accounting units should consider enhancing the integration of technology and data analytics throughout the curriculum, both in undergraduate and graduate programs.  
  • Enrollment Strategies: Accounting units should develop strategies to increase undergraduate enrollments, especially in the context of declining accounting enrollments in certain parts of the world. 

Standard A4: Accounting Curricula Content and Assurance of Learning 

  • AoL Process Improvement: Accounting units are advised to mature and refine AoL processes, tracking broad-based measures of student success and impact and systematically assessing and utilizing data to inform program-level changes. 

Standard A6: Accounting Faculty Sufficiency, Credentials, Qualifications, and Deployment  

  • Faculty Qualifications: Accounting units should review and clarify faculty qualifications and scholarly academic criteria, ensuring that they reflect rigor consistent with the school’s mission, expected outcomes, and peer institutions. 

In accounting, the most immediate issue involves strategic management, including managing declining enrollments of accounting degrees at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in certain parts of the world. As data analytics and related disciplines continue to gain momentum, accounting enrollments continue to decline, suggesting that accounting students may be choosing data analytics over accounting.

Undergraduate and Master's Accounting Degrees Conferred Between 2018 and 2023

Accounting degrees conferred  

Doctoral Accounting Degrees Conferred Between 2018 and 2023

Doctoral accounting degrees conferred


Since 2020, there has been an increase in doctoral programs conferred.

Accounting Best Practice Example

The Daniels School of Business at Purdue University has become a leader in building the CPA pipeline through innovative networking and reshaping the image of accountants. The school has established an advisory board composed of Purdue alumni who are partners at public accounting firms and senior vice presidents of corporations. To foster networking in a non-professional setting, the school organizes social events at football games, bringing together students and advisory board members. Professors also meet with academic advisors regularly to ensure that students receive accurate guidance, especially related to CPA exam updates. The accounting curriculum now includes a first-year class that exposes students to accounting and finance careers. Another vital part of the program is a plan of study that allows students to take busy-season internships. As a result, undergraduate enrollment in key accounting courses has surged, and the master’s program has more than doubled in five years, capturing 40 percent of undergraduate accounting majors. Eighty-eight percent of Purdue Master of Accountancy degree-holders complete CPA requirements before starting their full-time jobs. Purdue makes accounting more appealing to students by showcasing diverse career possibilities and promoting an advisor mindset. Alumni praise the school’s efforts, and these initiatives are seen as promising for the future of CPAs.
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AACSB volunteers weigh in on accreditation and on their contributions.


Accreditation volunteers share why volunteering with AACSB provides value to their professional careers and their schools.

Volunteer Representation for 2022–23

This list includes individuals who served as a volunteer between July 1, 2022, and June 30, 2023, in one of the following roles:
• Operating Committee Member (Accounting Accreditation Committee—AAC; Accounting Accreditation Policy Committee—AAPC; Business Accreditation Policy Committee—BAPC; Continuous Improvement Review Committee—CIRC; Initial Accreditation Committee—IAC)
• Mentor (business or accounting)
• Team Chair (business or accounting)
• Team Member (business or accounting)

Only individuals who agreed to be listed are included. If your name does not appear and you served on one of the roles listed above between July 1, 2022, and June 30, 2023, and would like to be added, please contact us at [email protected]. Thank you.


Satisfaction With Accreditation Experience

Accreditation volunteer satisfaction

number of volunteers trained

In 2023–24, AACSB will launch its volunteer refresher training course. Volunteers will be required to complete a refresher course every three years. The training will highlight key updates made since the release of the 2020 accreditation standards as well as lessons learned along the way from the perspective of peer review teams, committees, and accreditation staff.

Best Practices Icon
What were some of the best practices noted by peer review teams on their visits?

Best Practices and Innovations

Top Areas for Best Practices Mentioned by Peer Review Teams

Accreditation best practices


Best Practice Examples

Start Lab ICHEC at the Brussels Management School, a supportive space for young entrepreneurs in Brussels, has celebrated its fifth anniversary. The Start Lab identifies and develops the entrepreneurial talents of students and young graduates through training, coaching, coworking, recognition, expertise sharing, and networking. Through this support, the young entrepreneurs can carry out resilient, sustainable, and responsible business projects that create jobs and positive societal impact. The Start Lab is supported by a number of organizations as well as the Brussels-Capital Region. Through its success, the lab has been able to organize two sessions per year, as of 2021–22, bringing the number of projects coached by the Start Lab up to 48 projects for that year.
In 2019, Tunghai University’s College of Management launched a high-impact Global Elite Program (GEP), open to all first-year students across the college’s six departments. With an innovative English-taught core curriculum, the program provides greater flexibility in each GEP student’s personal study plan, strengthens participants’ bilingual skills, and sets specific goals toward developing global business leaders. Besides facilitating GEP students’ transition to studying in Taiwan, the program also offers a scholarship sponsored by an EMBA alumnus to support economically disadvantaged students. The GEP continues to expand collaboration with leading AACSB-accredited business schools to promote students’ international exposure and achieve the program’s vision to meet global challenges in the next decades.
Leadership Strategy and Sustainability, a capstone course taught at the University of Ottawa Telfer School of Management, engages students by embedding environmental and social community-based projects in the curriculum. Over the last three years, more than 400 students have engaged in the research, creation, and presentation of over 80 unique consulting projects to more than 50 different community organizations. In total, the course has provided the equivalent of over 10,000 community service hours to these organizations. The course emphasizes action learning, collaboration, and leadership development. Examples of past projects include exploring new market opportunities, recommending waste reduction or carbon mitigation strategies, and addressing food insecurity challenges in the local community.
Societal Impact Icon
Where are schools choosing to focus their societal impact efforts?

Societal Impact

Societal impact is beginning to take shape as an important component of business education. Schools are leveraging the accreditation standards in this area to ensure that their programs and outputs contribute to solving some of society’s biggest challenges. Many schools use the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as their framework for naming their focus area related to societal impact. Other schools use their own terminology or a different framework. To amalgamate reporting across different terminology, we categorize schools’ reporting into three broad types: economic, environmental, and social efforts.


Societal Impact Focus Areas


Societal Impact Focus Areas

Initiatives Reported From CIR Visits Under 2020 Standards, Between July 1, 2022, and June 30, 2023

Count of societal impact focus areas

The data reveal that schools in Asia Pacific and EMEA are fairly evenly distributed among the three categories, while schools in the Americas place more emphasis on social and economic initiatives and less on environmental initiatives. Following are some exemplars of societal impact efforts in all three regions. 

SI focus area economic

The Graduate School of International Management (GSIM) at the International University of Japan (IUJ) presents a diverse faculty intellectual portfolio, featuring outputs in basic or discovery scholarship, applied research, and teaching and learning scholarship, all aligned with the school’s mission to develop future global leaders with social awareness, serving developing countries. The IUJ Research Institute plays a significant role in fostering interdisciplinary research on pressing issues in Japan and facilitating knowledge dissemination to society. GSIM’s strong connections with major Japanese companies and government agencies have resulted in impactful projects, influencing Japanese government energy policy and contributing to development initiatives in partnership with the Japanese government JICA organization. The university’s positive impact extends globally, with non-degree programs for foreign executives from developing countries and active community engagement, creating mutually beneficial relationships. GSIM educates a large portion of students who are officials from foreign government ministries of developing countries. Such students work on research topics from their workplaces and try to solve the problems under GSIM faculty supervision. The research outcomes often have direct and indirect impact on policies of developing countries, implemented by GSIM graduates. IUJ has a significant impact on the local community by transmitting a great deal of professional knowledge and skills to the local community through annual symposiums, training programs, local context courses, among many other activities.
The University of Alabama excels in societal impact through its well-defined societal impact plan, which encompasses four strategic goals. First, the Culverhouse College of Business aims to establish a robust support structure and processes to foster, promote, and disseminate initiatives that enhance resilience in rural and struggling communities throughout Alabama. Second, the university seeks to expand the positive influence of its graduates, ensuring the university’s lifelong impact on the resilience of these communities. Third, the College of Business strives to amplify its visibility and impact of research focused on enhancing the quality of life and economic opportunities in these regions. Last, the university aims to extend the reach and significance of its outreach initiatives, contributing significantly to greater resilience in rural and struggling communities across the state. With tangible progress already evident and a clear focus on these key areas, the University of Alabama demonstrates its commitment to making a lasting and meaningful economic impact on society.

SI focus area environmental

IESEG School of Management in France excels through its ambitious objectives and well-defined key performance indicators that prioritize sustainability and address the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. By 2026, the school aims to include sustainability content in 100 percent of its courses, ensuring that every student is equipped with a comprehensive understanding of environmental concerns. To reinforce its commitment, IESEG has launched an 18-monthlong sustainability training for all faculty and staff designed to foster a culture of environmental responsibility throughout the institution. Additionally, the school endeavors to integrate sustainability dimensions into the roadmaps of all services and departments by 2026, ensuring a holistic and coherent approach toward sustainability in every aspect of its operations. Moreover, the Sustainability Certificate, which the school anticipates will be earned by 20 percent of its students by 2026, will further encourage and recognize active engagement in environmental initiatives. IESEG School of Management’s forward-looking objectives and measurable KPIs exemplify its dedication to making a significant environmental societal impact and shaping responsible leaders for a sustainable future.
ITAM’s Center for Energy and Natural Resources (CERN) is a multidisciplinary initiative aimed at improving the quality of energy and natural resource policies and business decisions in Mexico and in similar contexts. CERN’s strategy for achieving this objective includes creating new knowledge, developing human capital, and providing a forum to discuss issues that promote sustainability. Faculty within the center received a grant from a Mexican government research agency to develop a strategic plan for generating energy efficiency in low-income households. Additionally, in collaboration with the Mexican Central Bank, the school is delivering an executive education program in sustainable finance and climate risk analysis. With the support of the German Corporation for International Cooperation, the school is also developing a course in sustainable finance and climate risk analysis for undergraduate students. A further collaboration is underway with the Economics Department to develop a framework for climate risk-related scenarios in Mexico.

SI focus area social

At the forefront of driving social change and inclusivity, Aston University in the U.K. stands out for its positive impact on small businesses and ethnically underrepresented entrepreneurs. As one of the first business schools in the U.K. to receive Small Business Charter status, awarded by the Chartered Association of Business Schools in 2014, Aston University is committed to fostering business growth and productivity. This dedication is exemplified through its interconnected centers of excellence, with a particular focus on the Centre for Research in Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship (CREME). Through CREME, Aston Business School delivers cutting-edge expertise in business support for ethnic minority entrepreneurs, transforming perceptions and engaging collaboratively with overlooked or disregarded business communities. Working closely with business policymakers and influential organizations, Aston University’s initiatives have a profound and positive impact on the growth and development of small businesses and underrepresented entrepreneurs, helping to create a more inclusive and thriving entrepreneurial landscape.
SVKM’s NMIMS University has been at the forefront of understanding the significance of entrepreneurship and social responsibility. As a result of this visionary approach, the university established the Jasani Center for Social Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Management, creating opportunities for the school to engage with a larger section of the community and beyond. The university has designed a well-structured plan to implement its societal impact initiatives, leveraging its Jasani Center, Social Responsibility Forum (SRF), and We Care: Civic Engagement Internship. The curriculum incorporates courses on corporate social responsibility, ESG issues, sustainability, and social entrepreneurship, providing students with a strong sustainability perspective and instilling values of inclusiveness and social innovation. Some successful examples include SRF students and faculty organizing blood donation drives, providing medical supplies for individuals with COVID-19 infections, and conducting health awareness campaigns to prevent community spread of the virus. Additionally, the Dolphin Tanki event empowers entrepreneurial adolescents from resource-poor communities to pitch their business ideas. Collaborating with NGOs like Angel Xpress and Kotak Education Foundation, SRF’s “Gift a Skill” event enables underprivileged adolescents and youth to improve their soft skills through online workshops. Moreover, SRF students and alumni undertake an annual tree-planting activity in Mumbai and rural areas of Maharashtra, showcasing their dedication to environmental sustainability. These initiatives exemplify NMIMS University's unwavering commitment to fostering positive societal impact and driving social change.
Looking Forward Icon
What issues are likely to be at the forefront of conversations for schools hosting upcoming AACSB accreditation visits?

Looking Forward

New This Year

Many small and medium-sized schools do not have the resources to purchase third-party software to manage their accreditation reporting requirements. To aid schools with this effort, AACSB now provides comprehensive and easy-to-use Excel templates for the tables that must be submitted for accreditation reporting purposes (e.g., 3-1, 3-2, 5-1, etc.). These templates can be downloaded from the AACSB website.

What’s more, these tables can be uploaded into myAccreditation without having to save them in PDF format. Simply use the templates and upload each file as an Excel file. We hope these templates are a great value add to your school.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Accreditation

Generative AI is becoming ubiquitous in many aspects of our lives, and questions about the use of AI to facilitate accreditation visits and to prepare accreditation reports are occurring in everyday conversation. Just as the accreditation standards embrace a commitment to a growth mindset and lifelong learning, AACSB is seeking to leverage technology to streamline the accreditation process; provide valuable, consultative feedback; and reduce burden on schools and volunteers whenever possible. We welcome schools to use AI as a tool in their accreditation journeys.

In line with Guiding Principle 1 in AACSB’s accreditation standards, we expect that ethics and integrity will be paramount in the use of all technology, including generative AI tools. And, in line with Guiding Principle 10 in the standards, all information that schools provide to AACSB should be accurate. Schools must ensure that they use technology as an enabler, not a replacement, for reporting information to AACSB, whether it is in accreditation reports or in periodic surveys, such as the AACSB Business School Questionnaire. Peer review teams will certainly be interested in how schools are embedding AI into their curriculum and how they are preparing learners with this current and emerging technology, consistent with Standard 4.  

Continued Commitment to Diversity

The issue of diversity has continued to be a popular topic of conversation, largely due to various legislative actions in the United States that restrict the use of public funds to support diversity efforts at public colleges and universities. Questions center on what an accreditation team can reasonably expect of a school that operates in an area where diversity efforts are stifled by local leaders.

In the 2020 accreditation standards, AACSB’s Guiding Principle 9 relays the Accreditation Council’s expectation related to diversity and inclusion:

Diversity in people and ideas enhances the educational experience and encourages excellence in every business education program. At the same time, diversity is a culturally embedded concept rooted in historical and cultural traditions, legislative and regulatory concepts, ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic conditions, religious practices, and individual and shared experiences. Within this complex environment, the school is expected to demonstrate a commitment to advancing diversity and inclusion issues in the context of the cultural landscape in which it operates. The school fosters awareness, understanding, acceptance, and respect for diverse viewpoints related to current and emerging issues.

This language makes it clear that AACSB views diversity through a global lens, and that each school is expected to interpret and apply diversity within its unique cultural context. The 2020 standards are not prescriptive in how diversity is defined at any school—that is the prerogative of the school. Neither are the standards prescriptive around admission criteria, as this is also the prerogative of the school. Thus, we do not view AACSB accreditation standards as conflicting with U.S. legislation, and we do not expect to make any changes to the standards at this time. AACSB’s core values include a deep and abiding commitment to diversity and equitable access to high-quality education, for everyone.

Accreditation Visits This Year

Schools with 2023–24 visits should be mindful of several focus areas, including visit modality, disclosure of student outcomes to the public, and measuring societal impact.

While the COVID-19 pandemic presented unprecedented challenges globally, business schools demonstrated grace and agility over the past three years in continuing to serve learners through high-quality business education. As the world has now moved out of the most critical pandemic stage, accreditation visits are nearly universally back to a face-to-face modality. However, the lessons we learned about how to conduct high-quality virtual visits will remain with us. Going forward, we have the tools and processes needed to conduct a virtual visit at any time if circumstances necessitate a change of plan. However, departure from a face-to-face visit requires AACSB’s approval in advance.

An area of the standards that schools should pay particular attention to is Standard 6.2, which requires public disclosure of academic program quality supporting learner progression and post-graduation success on a current and consistent basis. This information should be available on the accredited unit’s website, where it is clearly displayed and distinguishable from university amalgamated data. As a reminder from documentation for Standard 6.2, disclosures are not prescriptive but are informed by the school’s mission, strategies, and expected outcomes, and may include post-graduate learner success outcomes, admission data, retention and time-to-degree data, diversity and inclusion advances, particular program emphases, student learning outcomes, rankings data, experiential learning opportunities, meaningful societal impact, or other mission-specific outcomes.

A second area of the standards for schools to closely consider is societal impact. AACSB released a white paper on how to align with the expectations of the 2020 standards in February 2023. Measuring societal impact has also been a popular topic recently, and this paper walks you through how to write an impact statement that provides a roadmap to measuring your school’s societal impact efforts. To learn more, download AACSB and Societal Impact: Aligning With the AACSB 2020 Business Accreditation Standards.

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