Funding: “Public higher education institutions in the Turkish Republic are funded by the government budget, based on a detailed itemising of their expenditures. The major difficulty the higher education sector has encountered in the last decade has been the limited subsidies from the government budget, with the existing line-item budgeting system..., leaving insufficient discretionary spending Powers to individual public higher education institutions.”
Access to higher education and participation rates: “The discrepancy existing between the numbers of potential degree candidates and the actual number of student placements in an academic program is enormous. In 2003, only 554,316 of 1,593,831 exam-takers were enrolled in a higher education program (YÖK, 2004b). In general, during the last ten years, only about one-third of the candidates have been placed in a university program, leaving two-thirds without higher learning.”
Discrepancies among Higher Education Institutions: “Today, the institutions most recently opened by the elected provincial authorities (with the purposes of enhancing provincial status and fulfilling pre-election promises) are still suffering from a lack of academic staff, physical plant, etc., leading to a loss of academic reputation and competitiveness, thus remaining only local institutions.”
Designing and Implementing a National Quality Assurance System: “There are some universities that have accreditation from AACSB/ABET, whereas there others that do not have any national accreditation and quality assurance system for higher education in Turkey. In the existing system, the Council of Higher Education (YÖK) and the Inter-University Board are the bodies responsible for setting criteria for the overall recognition of academic programs”.
Private higher education: “In the present system of Turkish higher education, private universities offer the same mono-disciplinary academic programs with traditional teaching methods as do the state institutions. They are not encouraged to develop or explain the specific, unique value of what they produce, either for learners or society, remaining largely insulated within the framework of national education objectives and its uniform vernacular.”
Mizikazi F.; (2006), “Higher Education in Turkey,” http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001455/145584e.pdf, Accessed on 2-15-15.