How to Read the Country Profiles

Cultural Attributes

This section includes a description of any aspects of the culture of [country/territory] that are important for people from outside [country/territory] to understand, in order to work effectively with people from [country/territory]. Such aspects include, but are not limited to, cultural attributes such as those examined on the Geert Hofstede Scale


List of National Holidays

A list or calendar of common national holidays to be aware of in the context of [country/territory].


Context of Higher Education

  • Typical Academic Year: The most common starting and ending months of the academic year as well as semester breaks used by higher education institutions in [country/territory].
  • Typical Student Demographics and/or Trends: Information and/or sources of any available numbers signifying typical student demographics (e.g., urban vs. rural, ethnic/national origin, gender, etc.), including trends over time, if available.
  • Common Language(s) of Instruction: The most common language(s) of instruction for higher/management education in [country/territory].


Challenges/Opportunities

Description of any aspects of higher/management education in [country/territory] that present challenges to be overcome, or opportunities to be pursued. Examples include: geopolitical issues affecting operations in [country/territory]; regulation of higher education institutions; niche markets; etc.

Unique aspects of the context/environment particularly relevant to understanding higher or management education landscape: Description of any other aspects unique to the higher/management education context of [country/territory] that are important to understand.


Common Faculty Models

  • Faculty Demographics and/or Trends: Information and/or sources of any available numbers signifying typical faculty demographics (e.g., ethnic/national origin, gender, urban versus rural, education received in-country versus out-of-country, prior experience in industry versus academia, etc.), including trends over time, if available.
  • Typical Qualifications Expected of New Hires: Description of any common expectations of newly hired faculty qualifications, particularly if there are any codified or legal requirements.
  • Contractual Systems/Administrative Structures: Description of any common systems of promotion, contractual negotiation and/or tenure in [country/territory], particularly those involving administration at the institutional level.
  • Typical Compensation Practices: Description of any common systems or practices involving faculty compensation, such as overload teaching bonuses, extra research funds, bonuses for outstanding faculty performance, non-monetary rewards, etc., particularly if there are any codified or legal requirements.


Higher/Management Education Sector

Glossary of Institution Types 
Listing of institutional types that offer management education in [country/territory] (e.g., national university, private university, university of applied science, polytechnic, grande ecole, autonomous college, public university, state university, institute, etc.). Please note these examples are not meant to be exhaustive.

Award Types 
At each degree level (i.e., Undergraduate; Graduate/Post-graduate; and Doctoral), the following information is provided for each type of degree commonly awarded:

  • [Award Type]: e.g., Bachelor's degree; Master's degree; Post-Graduate Diploma; Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree; etc.
    • Typical Admissions Criteria: e.g., secondary school-leaving diploma, national college entrance exam, GMAT scores, work experience, etc.
    • Typical Duration: In years, semesters, quarters, ECTS or CATS credits, etc.
    • Offered by (Institution Types): Listing of the institutional types above that are authorized to offer this type of degree.
    • Statistics: Information and/or sources of any available numbers signifying how commonly this type of award is conferred, how many students typically enroll in this type of degree, full-time versus part-time enrollment ratios, etc.
    • Additional Information: Any additional information relevant to understanding this type of degree in the context of [country/territory].


Higher Education Regulation and Quality Assurance

Educational Authority Type 
One of the following categories is selected which best describes [country/territory]:

  • Centralized. Authority for regulation and oversight of the higher education sector in the given country is concentrated in the hands of a single national-level agency (or small group of interrelated agencies) with authority over the whole country (e.g., Ministry of Education, Ministry of Higher Education, Department of National Education, etc.).
  • Tiered. Higher education regulation and quality assurance is overseen primarily by a single overarching national-level agency, but that agency delegates some or most of its powers to lower-level agencies (e.g., government departments at the level of states/provinces, local municipalities, or even non-governmental organizations (NGOs), etc.).
  • Decentralized. Authority for regulation and oversight of the higher education sector in the country is distributed amongst agencies at multiple levels (national, state/provincial, local, NGO, etc.), or amongst multiple unrelated agencies at the same level.


Higher Education Regulation

National Level Bodies 
Listing of the name(s) of the agency (or agencies) that hold ultimate responsibility for higher education regulation and quality assurance within [country/territory], with Web links, where available.

State/Provincial/Local Quality Assurance Bodies 
Listing of the name(s) of any agency (or agencies) that are responsible for quality assurance at any relevant sub-national level(s), with Web links where available.

Recent or Upcoming Structural Changes/Reforms 
Description of any recent (or known upcoming) changes or reforms to the structure of higher education in [country/territory], its regulation and/or its quality assurance regime, including:

  • Name of Reform(s)
    • Affected institutional type(s), if any:
    • Implications for higher/management education in [country/territory]:
    • Issues regarding implementation, if any.


Internationalization of Higher Education

Regulations Concerning Mobility, Cross-Border Collaborations, and Foreign Providers 

Internationally Mobile Students  

  • Relevant Legal Structure: Listing of any relevant laws or requirements governing internationally mobile students coming into or going out of [country/territory].
  • Institutional Support Available: Listing of any organized efforts or institutions that offer support to foreign students in [country/territory].
  • Statistics: Information and/or sources of numbers signifying the level of activity into/out of the country by internationally mobile students.
Recognition of Foreign Qualifications  
  • Relevant Legal Structure: Listing of any relevant laws or requirements governing the recognition of foreign educational qualifications. 
  • Institutional Support Available: Listing of any organized efforts or institutions that offer support to gaining recognition of foreign educational qualifications.
  • Statistics: Information and/or sources of numbers signifying how common it is to seek/gain recognition of foreign qualifications in [country/territory]. 

Franchised/Validated and Joint/Dual-Degree Programs  

  • Relevant Legal Structure: Listing of any relevant laws or requirements governing franchised, validated, joint, or dual degree programs in [country/territory].
  • Institutional Support Available: Listing of any organized efforts or institutions that offer support to setting up or executing franchised, validated, joint, or dual degree programs in [country/territory].
  • Statistics: Information and/or sources of numbers signifying how common franchised, validated, joint, or dual degree programs are in [country/territory]. 
Foreign Branch Campuses  
  • Relevant Legal Structure: Listing of any relevant laws or requirements governing foreign branch campuses in [country/territory].
  • Institutional Support Available: Listing of any organized efforts or institutions that offer support to setting up or maintaining foreign branch campuses in [country/territory].
  • Statistics: Information and/or sources of numbers signifying how common foreign branch campuses are in [country/territory]. 
Signatory to International Higher Education Accord 

Listing of any international higher education treaty or accord to which [country/territory] is a party (e.g., Bologna Accords, the Regional Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas and Degrees in Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean, etc.). 

Links to Additional Information 

Links to local sources are included such as:

  • International Association of Universities [country/territory] higher education profile: 
  • UNESCO [country/territory] higher education profile: 
  • [country/territory] and/or region-specific higher or management education media sources: 
  • [country/territory] government agency statistics: