Common Faculty Models

  • Faculty demographics and/or trends: Since 1975, Egypt has had a 3-4 weeks limited gram program u pro of pedagogical training in place for new faculty members. Participation in this is mandatory for anyone seeking promotion from Lecturer to Assistant Professor. There is no retirement age, leading to a relatively skewed distribution, an inverted pyramid of senior faculty members with fewer junior teaching staff to meet the teaching, tutoring and continuous contact needs of the majority of students. Nearly all full-time faculty members are permanent from their first appointment. All major decisions concerning admission levels and standards definition of programs and curricula, creating new academic positions for the recruitment and appointment of faculty, allocation of resources, establishment of academic standards and the assessment of those standards, are made by the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) and through the Supreme Council of Universities (SCU).
  • Typical qualifications expected of new hires: The main categories of academic staff and the qualifications needed for these posts are as follows:
    • Demonstrators (must hold a Bachelor degree); usually the appointment is made from the best students in the class or on the basis of competition, which is advertised publicly.
    • Assistant Lecturers; are demonstrators who obtain a Master degree within five years maximum after the Bachelor graduation.
    • Lecturers; are assistant lecturers who obtain a Doctorate degree recognized by the Supreme Council for Universities, within five years after graduating with a Master degree.
    • Associate Professors; minimum of five years after reaching lecturer level, in addition to having research, faculty and teaching track record.
    • Full Professors; minimum of five years after being appointed an associate professor, in addition to having research, faculty and teaching track records.
  • Contractual systems/administrative structures: Academic staff are considered civil servants. They are hired upon competition (rare cases) or from the best in their classes and then promoted from one level to another until reaching full professorship (majority of cases). In some rare cases, professionals from industry are hired on a temporary contract to supplement teaching in academic departments. Faculty Selection is done through: 
    • Appointment of honor students as research students, within prescribed quotas.
    • Appointment of honor students with MS degrees in the position of Assistant Professor.
    • Appointments to faculty positions would be through a competitive advertised process, and all who are qualified are eligible to apply.
  • Typical compensation practices:Salaries are not linked to performance and once an appointment is made, termination is very difficult. Across the ranks, the salary scale consists of a base (same for all within a rank) plus additional increments, the amounts of which vary depending on the number of years of experience and on extra tasks which staff undertake. Senior administrative staff (deans and chairs) gets a negligible monetary compensation for taking on administrative positions. By law, all faculty members are allowed to hold other jobs. Junior staff (below Assistant Professor) is allowed to tutor but not work as consultants until they are in the third year of their hire. Staff takes advantage of this situation and seeks other part-time employment opportunities in order to augment their income. Having two and sometimes three jobs contributes to widespread absence, particularly in the professional programs. Faculty members appear to have very limited access to public funds to support their scholarship. Research funding from the Academy of Scientific Research, even on a competitive basis, is reportedly extremely limited as is financial assistance that would help staff establish links with international scholarly communities. With the exception of one or two-year scientific mission programs, there are no paid sabbatical leaves and a systematic incentive process to encourage professional revival is absent. Faculty members, however, are entitled during the course of their academic career for a total of up-to ten years of unpaid leave (on-loan) from their universities/institutes to other local or foreign universities or even industrial enterprises. 

http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/tempus/participating_countries/reviews/egypt_review_of_higher_education.pdf

http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/tempus/participating_countries/higher/egypt.pdf