Common Faculty Models

  • Faculty demographics and/or trends: The increase in the number of faculty with Doctoral/PhD degrees in the last decade indicates a trend on qualifications in the higher education system in the country. In 2002, the annual CAPES survey[1] identified 32,710 professors with Doctoral/PhD degrees in the higher education system. In 2012, this number was 70,965, indicating a growth of 116 percent in ten years. There is still significant concentration of qualified faculty in Southeast and South regions of the country. Nevertheless, this concentration has decreased by 9.49 percent from 2002 (79.4 percent of Doctoral/PhD degrees in Southeast and South) to 2012 (69.1 percent of Doctoral/PhD degrees in Southeast and South).
  • Typical qualifications expected of new hires:  A trend to expect Doctoral/PhD on new hires can be observed in Brazil, following other policies, which have been supporting development of the country and catching up of international patterns. One historical example is Law No. 9.394 of 1996, which established that universities should have at least one third of faculty with Masters of Science or Doctoral/PhD academic degrees, as well as in full-time contracts.[2] A more recent example is an amending law of 2013, which established Doctoral/PhD degree as a requirement for admission in public universities and federal institutes of higher education.
  • Contractual systems/administrative structures: Contractual systems of faculty are oriented upon the following types: exclusive dedication; full-time; part-time; and hourly. A national survey revealed that in 2005, 44.1 percent of teaching duties, equivalent to 118,269-faculty work, was hourly.[3] Functions performed by hourly teachers added to the part-time faculty, represented 64.5 percent of total. Only 16.9 percent were working in exclusive dedication, and 18.6 percent work full-time. However, the evolution in the number of Doctoral/PhD degree faculty, as well as new formal rules related to new hires, can be considered as trends on leveraging full-time and exclusive dedication positions.
    • Typical compensation practices: Salaries for faculty members in Brazil permit a middle-class lifestyle. At entry level in the public system for a full-time professor with a Doctoral/PhD degree, salary was estimated in US$1,858 monthly. The top of salary hierarchy is US$4,550, and on average of US$3,179 monthly.[4] Contracts with full time faculty are done on an annual basis, but labor rules are different in the public and private Universities, Schools and Institutes. Private Universities follow general regulations required from any organization in the country regarding general employment law. This law establishes a set of obligations for the employer regarding health and retirement insurance taxes, right of 30 days paid vacation, among other obligations, but do not assure commitments such as tenure positions. The public system follows the rules of public service, wherein entrance is supposed to be through public contests; careers are usually taken in long term and the dismissal rate is very low.


[1] Source: GeoCapes, 2012. In http://geocapes.capes.gov.br/geocapes2/.

[2] in art. 52, sections II and III,

[3] Cadastro Nacional de Docentes Da Educação Superior 2005.1 MINISTÉRIO DA EDUCAÇÃO. Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira (INEP). In http://download.inep.gov.br/download/superior/2004/censosuperior/Resumo_Tecnico_Cadastro_Docentes2005_1.pdf.

[4] Philip G. Altbach, Liz Reisberg, and Iván F. Pacheco. Academic Salaries and Contracts: Global Trends and American Realities. THE NEA 2013 ALMANAC OF HIGHER EDUCATION. In http://ucd-advance.ucdavis.edu/post/national-education-association-almanac-higher-education